Water is a natural resource, and there is a clear shortage of water for nearly all purposes. There have numerous alternative methods for treating seawater or used water. A desalination plant works to remove the salt from seawater while an effluent treatment plant (ETP) is needed to treat wastewater and make it useable and drinkable.

Wastewater is also known as used water contains various substances such as oils, soaps, human or industrial waste, food scraps, and chemicals. The main purpose of an ETP plant is to purify industrial wastewater that contains oil, grease, and toxic materials.

An ETP plant system is a special type of filtration and purification system that contains various biological, chemical, and physical membranes. There are essential stages of the effluent treatment plant that includes

  • Preliminary Treatment Stage
    • Includes processes such as Screening, Sedimentation, and Clarifiers
  • Primary Treatment Stage
    • Methods include Flocculation, Coagulation, and Neutralization
  • Secondary or Biological Treatment Stage
    • Chemical treatment through the Activated Sludge process, Aerated Lagoons, and Biological Contactor
  • Disinfection Treatment Stage
    • Final treatment through Chemical coagulation and sedimentation, reverse osmosis, and UV filtration or disinfection
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